The district of Sagar lies in the north central region of Madhya Pradesh. It was spelled as Saugar during the British period.
It is situated between 23 deg 10' and 24 deg 27' north latitude and between 78 deg 4' and 79 deg 21' east longitude, the district has a truly central location in the country. The tropic of cancer passes through the southern part of the district.
The district is bounded on the north by Jhansi district of Uttar Pradesh , on the south by the district of Narsinghpur and Raisen, on the west by the district of Vidisha , and on the east by the district of Damoh, which was previously formed the part of Sagar District. On the notheast and northwest, the district adjoins Chhattarpur and Guna districts, respectively.
The district is divided into nine tahsils, viz, Sagar, Banda, Khurai, Rehli, Garhakota, Bina, Rahatgarh, Kesli and Deori each in the charge of a Tahsildar or a Sub-Divisional Officer. According to the Surveyor-General of India, the district has a total area of 6375 sq Kms and is shaped roughly like a triangle. It has industries such as oil and flour milling, saw-milling, ghee processing, handloom cotton weaving, bidi manufacture and railway and engineering works.
It is known in all over India due to its University named as Dr. Harisingh Gaur University and Army Cantonment and recently it has come into lime light due to "Bhagyodyay Tirth" a charitable hospital named after a Jain Sant Shri VidyaSagarji Maharaj. It is known for Police Training College which are only two in Madhya Pradesh other one is in Indore. Head quarter of Forensic Science Lab is also in SAGAR. Sagar lies in an extensive plain broken by low, forested hills and watered by Sonar river. Wheat, chickpeas, soghum, and oilseeds are chief crops of the region, there is extensive cattle raising. Sandstone, Limestone, iron ore and asbestos deposits are worked.
The archaeological site nearby Eran has revealed several Gupta inscriptions. District Sagar is predominantly a Scheduled Caste/Backward class district. These together form about 75% of the district. The district has sizable population of tribals who are named as Rajgonds after their kingdom. Most widely spoken language of the district is Hindi.
The people of Sagar possess a rich heritage of songs and dance. The most popular folk-dances commonly known are, baredi, moni, saira and dhimaryai. Baredi is a folk-dance of cattle herds who often perform it immediately after Diwali festival. Moni dance derives its name from the practice of observing silence throughout the day the dance is performed. Saira dance is performed with sticks in hand, usually accompanied with meaningful and melodious songs.